Intel is the strongest believer in advanced 2.5D and 3D stacking technologies, going by its investments in the segment last year. The chipmaker spent a considerable $3.5 billion USD on the high-end performance packaging market in 2021. The bulk of it went into the advancement of Foveros and EMIB. The former is a 2.5D packaging technique used to connect dies on the same substrate. Its 2.5D packaging uses an embedded multi-die interconnect bridge (EMIB) based on a 55-micron bump pitch.
Following closely behind Intel, we have TSMC which spent $3.05 billion USD on packaging technologies in 2021. Unlike Intel, TSMC’s advanced packaging techniques are used by a wide range of chipmakers, including AMD, Apple, Qualcomm, and MediaTek. AMD’s Ryzen 7 5800X3D, and the Milan-X server processors, for example, use the CoWoS platform for 3D stacking L3 cache dies atop the base compute die.
Samsung Foundry lags behind its rivals by quite a bit here. It spent less than $500 million on advanced packaging development in 2021. Its X-Cube technology is used by chipmakers to 3D stack memory dies, most notably HBM. X-Cube (eXtended-Cube) uses a 7nm TSV process and is set to use hybrid bonding interconnects.